Very Strong 7.7 Earthquake in Pakistan — after shocks started

M 7.7 – PAKISTAN – 2013-09-24 11:29:49 UTC

Magnitude Mw 7.7
Region PAKISTAN
Date time 2013-09-24   11:29:49.0 UTC
Location 27.07 N ; 65.56 E
Depth 20 km
Distances 798 km NE of Muscat, Oman / pop: 797,000 / local time: 15:29:49.0 2013-09-24 284 km NW of Karachi, Pakistan / pop: 11,624,219 / local time: 16:29:49.0 2013-09-24 168 km S of Khārān, Pakistan / pop: 30,841 / local time: 16:29:49.0 2013-09-24 119 km NW of Bela, Pakistan / pop: 20,119 / local time: 16:29:49.0 2013-09-24
Global view

Source parameters reviewed by a seismologist

Interactive map view:    javascript:show_map(1,true); LightMe(’emscgmaps’,true);

ALREADY ARE AFTER SHOCKS many not listed here:

For updates, please consult: http://www.emsc-csem.org
A magnitude 5.9 earthquake has occurred PAKISTAN at:
27.29N  65.66E Depth
24km 24/09/2013 at 11:36:35 (Universal Time)

5/24— 8.3 in Sea of Okhotsk– Widely felt —Foreshocks and Aftershocks —Kamkatchka very active during the last week

Global Earthquake Maps

ANF  EMSC  Global Incident Map  IRIS  USGS

“On Friday, an earthquake occurred in the Sea of ​​Okhotsk in Russia’s Far East coast. The quake of magnitude 8.2 was felt in the Far East, Siberia, and even in Moscow. Experts warned of aftershocks, one has already occurred. In the Far East, panic breaks out among the population.

Aftershocks of the earthquake that has rocked the Far East, Moscow and several cities of the European part of Russia on Friday morning, have reached the strength of 2, divided by seismologists. An earthquake of magnitude 8.2 had occurred on Friday in the Sea of ​​Okhotsk.

The epicenter was at a depth of 600 kilometers. Scientists believe that small tremors were felt on a very large area, because the earthquake had great strength and the epicenter was very deep. http://german.ruvr.ru/2013_05_24/Fernost-Erdbeben-war-noch-in-Moska…   ”

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This USGS shows 8.2, previously it was 8.3 (see below) There are still strong aftershocks above 6. happening, and many 6 and above quakes in and near Kamkatchka  in the last week … and probably continuing

M8.2 – SEA OF OKHOTSK

For updates, maps, and technical information, see: Event Page or USGS Earthquake Hazards Program

National Earthquake Information Center U.S. Geological Survey http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/neic/


M8.3  – Sea of Okhotsk 2013-05-24 05:44:49 UTC

Potential for SuperQuakes Underestimated

 

Potential for ‘Superquakes’ Underestimated, Recent Earthquakes Show

Becky Oskin, OurAmazingPlanet Staff Writer –         Feb 04, 2013        04:14 PM ET
sumatra-tsunami-damage-111107-02

                            A village near the coast of Sumatra lays in ruin, Jan. 2, 2005, as a result of the tsunami that struck South East Asia Dec. 26, 2004. CREDIT: U.S. Navy photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class Philip A. McDaniel

The earthquakes that rocked Tohoku, Japan in 2011, Sumatra in 2004 and Chile in 1960 — all of magnitude 9.0 or greater — should not have happened, according to seismologist’s theories of earthquake cycles. And that might mean earthquake prediction needs an overhaul, some researchers say.

All three earthquakes struck along subduction zones, where two of Earth’s tectonic plates collide and one dives beneath the other. Earlier earthquakes had released the pent-up strain along Chile’s master fault, meaning no big quakes were coming, scientists had thought. Japan and Sumatra both sat above on old oceanic crust, thought to be too stiff for superquakes.

And records of past quakes, combined with measurements of the speed of Earth’s tectonic plates, suggested the Tohoku and Sumatra-Andaman regions couldn’t make quakes larger than 8.4, almost nine times smaller than a magnitude 9.0 temblor.

“These areas had been written off as places incapable of producing a great earthquake,” said Chris Goldfinger, a marine geologist at Oregon State University in Corvallis.

But the events of 1960, 2004 and 2011 showed that these faults were capable of producing some of the most destructive earthquakes in recorded history, suggesting earthquake researchers need to re-think aspects of how they evaluate a fault’s earthquake potential.

“It’s time to come up with something new,” Goldfinger told OurAmazingPlanet.

Faults are like batteries

When two tectonic plates collide, they build up strain where a fault sticks, or locks, together. Earthquakes release this strain, which is a form of energy.

For decades, scientists assumed faults acted like rubber bands, steadily building up strain and then releasing it all at once, Goldfinger said. The longer the time since the last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake would be, the model predicted. [Video: What Does Earthquake ‘Magnitude’ Mean?]

 

The problem was researchers failed to recognize that faults can store energy like a battery, Goldfinger said. And just like batteries, they can discharge energy in small amounts, or all at once, he explained.

Goldfinger and other researchers now think if a “small” quake hits, it may not release all of the accumulated energy in a fault. (On a subduction zone, a small quake can still register in the magnitude-8.0 range, which is devastating to nearby cities.)

Thus, a fault can “borrow” stored energy from previous strain-building cycles, generating larger earthquakes than expected, such as those that hit Sumatra and Tohoku, Goldfinger and his colleagues propose in a study published in the January/February 2013 issue of the journal Seismological Research Letters.

“Those models were already being called into question when Sumatra drove one stake through their heart, and Tohoku drove the second one,” said Goldfinger, the lead author of the study.

Superquakes and supercycles

Goldfinger said scientists’ failure to recognize that faults could store energy comes from a lack of data. Historic earthquake records go back only 100 years, he noted. Geologists are only now getting histories that reach back thousands of years, via techniques that decode evidence of past earthquakes in sediments.

“What is happening on a short-term timescale is actually imposed on a long-term cycle,” he said.

Goldfinger calls these long-term histories supercycles, and the unusually large and rare earthquakes that discharge the battery are superquakes. The sequence, size and location of quakes vary from one supercycle to the next, he said.

Seismologist Marco Cisternas first proposed that faults could store energy in 2005, with a study showing that the magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake in 1960, the largest on record, released more energy than had been stored since its most recent quake, in 1837. Tsunami deposits in Chile indicate the last superquake occurred in 1575, and smaller quakes since then had only partly released the strain built up on the fault, his study found.

cascadia-subduction-zone-110531-02

The Cascadia subduction zone: producer of massive earthquakes. CREDIT: USGS.

In Sumatra, south of the Andaman region, analyses of corals uplifted and killed during earthquakes also indicated that the subduction zone undergoes supercycles, according to a 2008 study led by geologists at the Earth Observatory Institute in Singapore. Each series of quakes in the region lasts between 30 and 100 years, according to the study. The supercycles unfold every 200 years or so.

Forecasting the future

Goldfinger and his colleagues have evidence that the Cascadia Subduction Zone, which stretches from Northern California to British Columbia, is also in the middle of an earthquake supercycle.

Over the past 10,000 years, 19 superquakes and four supercycles have occurred along the zone, Goldfinger said.

“These would typically be of a magnitude from about 8.7 to 9.2, really huge earthquakes,” Goldfinger said. “We’ve also determined that there have been 22 additional earthquakes that involved just the southern end of the fault. We are assuming that these are slightly smaller, more like 8.0, but not necessarily. They were still very large earthquakes that if they happened today could have a devastating impact,” he said.

The present cycle seems like it’s gently ratcheting downward, Goldfinger said. “This would suggest that we’re not due for a giant [quake] anytime soon, but the model has no predictive value,” he said.

The battery model of earthquake energy storage and discharge makes it difficult for scientists to forecast future earthquakes, as there’s no explanation yet for why faults would behave this way, Goldfinger said. Plus, it’s hard to say how much energy a fault’s battery stores. “We haven’t yet figured out how to effectively put a voltmeter on a fault and say how charged it is,” Goldfinger said.

But with more detailed records of past earthquakes, such as those in Sumatra and Cascadia, Goldfinger believes scientists can give better estimates of seismic hazards, and prevent surprises like Sumatra and Tohoku.

“The long records are revealing very useful things,” he said. “We’re not sure what’s driving the long-term cycling, but at least we can tell people what to prepare for,” Goldfinger said.

Tsunami in South Pacific..Solomon Islands

This article only mentions  one 8.0.  Also, at least one person, in Hawaii,     http://ptwc.weather.gov/ptwc/text.php?id=pacific.TSUPAC.2013.02.06.0307   said there “was no danger of tsunami there. Perhaps due to how the ground masses moved”. Pacific Tsunami Warning Bulletin There will likely be adjustments all over the world, particularly along ley lines, as well as more after shocks.—–Granny

http://www.terradaily.com/reports/8_0_quake_strikes_Solomons_sparks_Pacific_tsunami_999.html
8.0 quake strikes Solomons, sparks Pacific tsunami by Staff Writers Honiara (AFP) Feb 06, 2013


illustration only

A major 8.0 magnitude earthquake was feared to have flattened villages in the Solomon Islands Wednesday, and triggered a tsunami with destructive potential for Pacific nations’ coasts, monitors said.

Tsunami watches were in effect as far afield as Hawaii, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre said, and New Zealand was also on guard. But monitors said there was no threat to Australia.

The US Geological Survey said the quake struck at 0112 GMT near the Santa Cruz Islands in the Solomons, which have been hit by a series of strong tremors over the past week, at a depth of 5.8 kilometres (3.5 miles).

A powerful aftershock of 6.4 magnitude was also recorded.

“Sea level readings indicate a tsunami was generated,” the Hawaii-based Pacific centre said. “It may have been destructive along coasts near the earthquake epicentre and could also be a threat to more distant coasts.”

Locals in the Solomons capital Honiara, 580 kilometres (360 miles) from the epicentre, said the quake was not felt there but some villages were destroyed, according to a hospital director.

“The information we are getting is that some villages west and south of Lata along the coast have been destroyed, although we cannot confirm this yet,” the director at Lata Hospital on the main Santa Cruz island of Ndende, told AFP.

A staff member at the Solomons National Disaster Management Office said officials were concerned about the eastern province of Temotu.

“That’s the province, which if it is going to have an effect, then they will be the first people to be impacted,” the official, who did not wish to be named, told AFP.

“They felt the quake.”

He said first reports from the area were that there was a tsunami wave but he had no further information.

He added that the national disaster operation centre had been activated and they were trying to contact those in Temotu province.

In 2007 a tsunami following an 8.1-magnitude earthquake killed at least 52 people in the Solomons and left thousands homeless.

The Solomon Islands are part of the “Ring of Fire”, a zone of tectonic activity around the Pacific Ocean that is subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

The tsunami warning was in effect for the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Tuvalu, New Caledonia, Kosrae, Fiji, Kiribati, and Wallis and Futuna.

After Shocks…continuing, update….11:03 PM EST

Lots of Big Aftershocks continue,   most over 5.0  …see events page:

http://quakes.globalincidentmap.com/

 

After shocks, also some buoys are in event mode  http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/

6.6 – SANTA CRUZ ISLANDS   For updates, maps, and technical information, see:
Event Page

There are other smaller ones…..

Three 8.0 Earth Quakes Santa Cruz Islands shown on Global Incidence Maps

Wednesday February 6 2013, 01:23:19 UTC  Santa Cruz Islands region mag 6.4 depth 10.1 USGS Feed Detail

Wednesday February 6 2013, 01:12:27 UTC   Santa Cruz Islands mag 8.0 depth 33.0 USGS Feed Detail

http://quakes.globalincidentmap.com/

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Wednesday, February 6 2013, 01:12:23 UTC  Santa Cruz Islands mag 8.0 depth 5.8 USGS Feed Detail

http://quakes.globalincidentmap.com/

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http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/usc000f1s0#summary8.0! EQ near Solomon Islands. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/usc000f1s0#summary